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Required Notify me of follow-up comments by email. It is calculated as the maximum base 2 logarithm of the physical sector size of any child vdev and it alters the disk format such that writes are always done according to it. Configuring ashift correctly is important because partial sector writes incur a penalty where the sector must be read into a buffer before it can be written.

ZFS makes the implicit assumption that the sector size reported by drives is correct and calculates ashift based on that. In an ideal world, physical sector size is always reported correctly and therefore, this requires no attention.

Unfortunately, this is not the case. The sector size on all storage devices was bytes prior to the creation of flash-based solid state drives. Some operating systems, such as Windows XP, were written under this assumption and will not function when drives report a different sector size. Flash-based solid state drives came to market around These devices report byte sectors, but the actual flash pages, which roughly correspond to sectors, are never bytes.

The early models used byte pages while the newer models have moved to an byte page. In addition, "Advanced Format" hard drives have been created which also use a byte sector size. Partial page writes suffer from similar performance degradation as partial sector writes. In some cases, the design of NAND-flash makes the performance degradation even worse, but that is beyond the scope of this description.

Reporting the correct sector sizes is the responsibility the block device layer. This unfortunately has made proper handling of devices that misreport drives different across different platforms. The respective methods are as follows:. A newer syntax that will rely on the actual sector sizes has been discussed as a cross platform replacement and will likely be implemented in the future.

In addition, Richard Yao has contributed a database of drives known to misreport sector sizes to the ZFS on Linux project. It is used to automatically adjust ashift without the assistance of the system administrator.

This approach is unable to fully compensate for misreported sector sizes whenever drive identifiers are used ambiguously e. The format is roughly compatible with illumos' sd. Strictly speaking, this database does not belong in ZFS, but the difficulty of patching the Linux kernel especially older ones necessitated that this be implemented in ZFS itself for Linux.

The same is true for MacZFS. However, FreeBSD and illumos are both able to implement this in the correct layer. Internally, ZFS allocates data using multiples of the device's sector size, typically either bytes or 4KB see above. When compression is enabled, a smaller number of sectors can be allocated for each block.

The uncompressed block size is set by the recordsize defaults to KB or volblocksize defaults to 8KB property for filesystems vs volumes. If you want to use compression and are uncertain which to use, use LZ4. It averages a 2. Both figures are obtained from testing by the LZ4 project on the Silesia corpus.

The greater compression ratio of gzip is usually only worthwhile for rarely accessed data. If you need more IOPS, use fewer disks per stripe. If you need more usable space, use more disks per stripe. Trying to optimize your RAID-Z stripe width based on exact numbers is irrelevant in nearly all cases.

See this blog post for more details. ZFS datasets use an internal recordsize of KB by default. The dataset recordsize is the basic unit of data used for internal copy-on-write on files. Partial record writes require that data be read from either ARC cheap or disk expensive. Software that writes in fixed record sizes e. Changing the recordsize on a dataset will only take effect for new files. If you change the recordsize because your application should perform better with a different one, you will need to recreate its files.

A cp followed by a mv on each file is sufficient. Zvols have a volblocksize property that is analogous to record size. Workloads that use smaller sized IOs such as swap on x86 which use byte pages will benefit from a smaller volblocksize. Each cached entry uses slightly more than bytes of memory. Each pool has a global deduplication table shared across all datasets and zvols on which deduplication is enabled. Each entry in the hash table is a record of a unique block in the pool. Where the block size is set by the recordsize or volblocksize properties.

The hash table also known as the DDT or DeDup Table must be accessed for every dedup-able block that is written or freed regardless of whether it has multiple references.

If there is insufficient memory for the DDT to be cached in memory, each cache miss will require reading a random block from disk, resulting in poor performance. The consequence is that sufficient memory to store deduplication data is required for good performance. The deduplication data is considered metadata and therefore can be cached if the primarycache or secondarycache properties are set to metadata. In addition, the deduplication table will compete with other metadata for metadata storage, which can have a negative effect on performance.

Simulation of the number of deduplication table entries needed for a given pool can be done using the -D option to zdb. Then a simple multiplication by bytes can be done to get the approximate memory requirements. Alternatively, you can estimate an upper bound on the number of unique blocks by dividing the amount of storage you plan to use on each dataset taking into account that partial records each count as a full recordsize for the purposes of deduplication by the recordsize and each zvol by the volblocksize, summing and then multiplying by bytes.

ZFS top level vdevs are divided into metaslabs from which blocks can be independently allocated so allow for concurrent IOs to perform allocations without blocking one another. At present, there is a regression [2] on the Linux and Mac OS X ports that causes serialization to occur.

By default, the selection of a metaslab is biased toward lower LBAs to improve performance of spinning disks, but this does not make sense on solid state media. This tunable is only advisable on systems that only use solid state media for pools.

The metaslab allocator will allocate blocks on a first-fit basis when a metaslab has more than or equal to 4 percent free space and a best-fit basis when a metaslab has less than 4 percent free space.

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