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Surprising Reasons for Weight Gain

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Traditional animation

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At first, it resulted in a more sketchy look, but the technique was improved upon over time. Disney animator and engineer Bill Justice had patented a forerunner of the Xerox process in , where drawings made with a special pencil would be transferred to a cel by pressure, and then fixing it.

It is not known if the process was ever used in animation. The xerographic method was first tested by Disney in a few scenes of Sleeping Beauty and was first fully used in the short film Goliath II , while the first feature entirely using this process was One Hundred and One Dalmatians The graphic style of this film was strongly influenced by the process. Some hand inking was still used together with xerography in this and subsequent films when distinct colored lines were needed.

Later, colored toners became available, and several distinct line colors could be used, even simultaneously. For instance, in The Rescuers the characters' outlines are gray. White and blue toners were used for special effects, such as snow and water. Basically, the process was a modification of a repro-photographic process; the artists' work were photographed on high-contrast "litho" film, and the image on the resulting negative was then transferred to a cel covered with a layer of light-sensitive dye.

The cel was exposed through the negative. Chemicals were then used to remove the unexposed portion. Small and delicate details were still inked by hand if needed. Spencer received an Academy Award for Technical Achievement for developing this process. A cel overlay is a cel with inanimate objects used to give the impression of a foreground when laid on top of a ready frame.

A special version of cel overlay is called line overlay , made to complete the background instead of making the foreground, and was invented to deal with the sketchy appearance of xeroxed drawings. The background was first painted as shapes and figures in flat colors, containing rather few details. Next, a cel with detailed black lines was laid directly over it, each line drawn to add more information to the underlying shape or figure and give the background the complexity it needed.

In this way, the visual style of the background will match that of the xeroxed character cels. As the xerographic process evolved, line overlay was left behind. The methods mentioned above describe the techniques of an animation process that originally depended on cels in its final stages, but painted cels are rare today as the computer moves into the animation studio, and the outline drawings are usually scanned into the computer and filled with digital paint instead of being transferred to cels and then colored by hand.

It is now also possible for animators to draw directly into a computer using a graphics tablet , Cintiq or a similar device, where the outline drawings are done in a similar manner as they would be on paper. Some of the advantages are the possibility and potential of controlling the size of the drawings while working on them, drawing directly on a multiplane background and eliminating the need of photographing line tests and scanning.

Though traditional animation is now commonly done with computers, it is important to differentiate computer-assisted traditional animation from 3D computer animation , such as Toy Story and Ice Age.

However, often traditional animation and 3D computer animation will be used together, as in Don Bluth 's Titan A. Most anime and many western animated series still use traditional animation today. DreamWorks executive Jeffrey Katzenberg coined the term "tradigital animation" to describe animated films produced by his studio which incorporated elements of traditional and computer animation equally, such as Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron and Sinbad: Legend of the Seven Seas.

The Wind Waker and others use " cel-shading " animation filters or lighting systems to make their full 3D animation appear as though it were drawn in a traditional cel-style. This technique was also used in the animated movie Appleseed , and cel-shaded 3D animation is typically integrated with cel animation in Disney films and in many television shows, such as the Fox animated series Futurama.

In one scene of the Pixar movie Ratatouille , an illustration of Gusteau in his cookbook , speaks to Remy who, in that scene, was lost in the sewers of Paris as a figment of Remy's imagination; this scene is also considered an example of cel-shading in an animated feature.

More recently, animated shorts such as Paperman , Feast , and The Dam Keeper have used a more distinctive style of cel-shaded 3D animation, capturing a look and feel similar to a 'moving painting'.

Rotoscoping is a method of traditional animation invented by Max Fleischer in , in which animation is "traced" over actual film footage of actors and scenery. Another piece of paper is then placed over the live action printouts and the action is traced frame by frame using a lightbox. The end result still looks hand drawn but the motion will be remarkably lifelike.

The films Waking Life and American Pop are full-length rotoscoped films. In most cases, rotoscoping is mainly used to aid the animation of realistically rendered human beings, as in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs , Peter Pan , and Sleeping Beauty. A method related to conventional rotoscoping was later invented for the animation of solid inanimate objects, such as cars, boats, or doors.

A small live action model of the required object was built and painted white, while the edges of the model were painted with thin black lines. The object was then filmed as required for the animated scene by moving the model, the camera, or a combination of both, in real time or using stop-motion animation.

The film frames were then printed on paper, showing a model made up of the painted black lines. After the artists had added details to the object not present in the live-action photography of the model, it was xeroxed onto cels. The process of transferring 3D objects to cels was greatly improved in the s when computer graphics advanced enough to allow the creation of 3D computer generated objects that could be manipulated in any way the animators wanted, and then printed as outlines on paper before being copied onto cels using Xerography or the APT process.

This process has more or less been superseded by the use of cel-shading. Related to rotoscoping are the methods of vectorizing live-action footage, in order to achieve a very graphical look, like in Richard Linklater 's film A Scanner Darkly.

Similar to the computer animation and traditional animation hybrids described above, occasionally a production will combine both live-action and animated footage. The live-action parts of these productions are usually filmed first, the actors pretending that they are interacting with the animated characters, props, or scenery; animation will then be added into the footage later to make it appear as if it has always been there.

Like rotoscoping, this method is rarely used, but when it is, it can be done to terrific effect, immersing the audience in a fantasy world where humans and cartoons co-exist. Live-action and animation were later combined in features such as Mary Poppins , Who Framed Roger Rabbit , Space Jam , and Enchanted , among many others.

The technique has also seen significant use in television commercials, especially for breakfast cereals marketed to children. Besides traditional animated characters, objects, and backgrounds, many other techniques are used to create special elements such as smoke, lightning and "magic", and to give the animation, in general, a distinct visual appearance. Today special effects are mostly done with computers, but earlier they had to be done by hand.

To produce these effects, the animators used different techniques, such as drybrush , airbrush , charcoal, grease pencil , backlit animation, diffusing screens, filters , or gels. For instance, the Nutcracker Suite segment in Fantasia has a fairy sequence where stippled cels are used, creating a soft pastel look.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. This image shows how two transparent cels, each with a different character drawn on them, and an opaque background are photographed together to form the composite image.

Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 1 January Animation from Script to Screen. U of Minnesota Press. Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. Thomas, Frank ; Johnston, Ollie The Illusion Of Life. The Animator's Survival Kit: Limited animation Masking Rotoscoping. Abstract animation visual music Adult animation Animated cartoon Animated sitcom Animated documentary Educational animation Erotic animation Independent animation Instructional animation.

Animation music Mickey Mousing Character animation model sheet walk cycle lip sync off-model Twelve principles Motion comic Films with live action and animation highest grossing Cartoon physics Cartoon violence Most expensive animated films. Retrieved from " https: Audiovisual introductions in Animation techniques. Tips for cellulite removal and prevention. What is the prognosis for cellulite? Cellulite is not a medical problem and does not have adverse health consequences. Most treatments, even those that are FDA-approved, only offer a partial and temporary solution.

The prognosis boils down to cosmetic opinion and treatment results. Is it possible to prevent cellulite? It is not always possible to prevent cellulite, but maintaining a healthy weight and getting regular exercise may help diminish the appearance of cellulite.

Maintaining hydration drinking plenty of fluids and smoking cessation may also make cellulite less noticeable. There are many reasons for sudden weight gain when there are no changes in diet or exercise. Learn to identify the cause of your sudden weight gain. What lifestyle changes have you made or therapies have you tried to prevent cellulite? Do you exercise to prevent it? Signs and symptoms of pregnancy vary by stage trimester. The earliest pregnancy symptom is typically a missed period, but others include.

Eating a healthy diet, getting a moderate amount of exercise, also are recommended for a healthy pregnancy. Information about the week by week growth of your baby in the womb are provided. Cellulite - Possible Causes Patient Comments: Tips for cellulite removal and prevention What is the prognosis for cellulite? Readers Comments 1 Share Your Story. How do I get rid of the cellulite on my thighs? Readers Comments 2 Share Your Story.

Weight Gain Shockers Slideshow Pictures. American Academy of Dermatology. Related Article Surprising Reasons for Weight Gain There are many reasons for sudden weight gain when there are no changes in diet or exercise. Surprising Reasons for Weight Gain.

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Fast-food consumption and lack of exercise are just a couple of causes of childhood obesity. Health effects of childhood obesity include type 2 diabetes, heart attack, stroke, high cholesterol, asthma, sleep apnea, gallstones, fatty liver disease, GERD, depression, and eating disorders.

Regular physical activity can reduce the risk of disease. Regular exercise can also reduce the symptoms of stress and anxiety. There are fitness programs that fit any age or lifestyle. Liposuction is a surgical procedure that removes excess fat that is difficult to get rid of with diet and exercise. Liposuction does not prevent weight regain. Liposuction has a good safety record; risks of the procedure include infection and skin discoloration.

Necrotizing fasciitis is also known as a flesh-eating bacterial infection, Fournier's gangrene, suppurative fasciitis, and necrotizing cellulitis. The disease is occasionally caused by fungi, but most cases are caused by bacteria that enter the skin through insect bites, cuts, puncture wounds, or surgical incisions. Signs and symptoms include pain, redness, swelling, fever, chills, skin ulceration, bullae formation, black scabs, gas formation, and fluid draining from the site of infection.

Treatment involves hospitalization, the use of intravenous antibiotics, and debridement of the necrotic tissue. Obesity is the state of being well above one's normal weight. That ideal weight must take into account the person's height, age, sex, and build. The earliest pregnancy symptom is typically a missed period, but others include breast swelling and tenderness, nausea and sometimes vomiting, fatigue, and bloating.

Third trimester symptoms are additional weight gain, heartburn, hemorrhoids, swelling of the ankles, fingers, and face, breast tenderness, and trouble sleeping. What's that all over you? Test your knowledge of your most amazing organ with the Skin Quiz! Learn the connection between your appearance and health. Discover what you can do about embarrassing beauty problems from facial hair to razor bumps. Wrinkles, whether they be fine line or deep furrows, typically appear on areas of the body that receive a high amount of exposure to the sun.

Smoking, light skin type, hairstyle, the way you dress, your occupational and recreational habits, and heredity are all factors that promote wrinkling. Medical treatments for wrinkles include antioxidants, moisturizers, alpha-hydroxy acids, and vitamin A acid. Cosmetic procedures that treat wrinkles include dermabrasion, microdermabrasion, glycolic acid peels, laser resurfacing, Botox, and fillers. What is Crohn's Disease? Warning Signs of Type 2 Diabetes.

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